1) L1 Frequency: Radio-frequency communication refers to wireless communication through the air with electromagnetic wave frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. L1 frequency is the most commonly used and oldest frequency in GPS, which even the less sophisticated, civilian-use devices such as smartwatches are capable of receiving.
- Thus, with this band, the use of NavIC in civilian-use gadgets can go up
- ISRO plans to set up ground stations in Japan and France to better triangulate the entire area under NavIC coverage.
2) Stiff-Person Syndrome: It is a rare autoimmune neurological condition that affects the central nervous system and can cause rigidity throughout the body and painful muscle spasms.
- It frequently affects women with a median onset of 35 to 40 years of age.
- The cause behind SPS is not fully understood yet. Several symptoms improve with oral diazepam (an anti-anxiety and muscle relaxant drug) or with drugs that alleviate muscle spasms, such as baclofen or gabapentin.
- Treatment involves the use of both symptomatic agents to enhance GABAergic influences and Immuno modulating treatment aimed at the autoimmune basis of the disease except
Corticosteroids because of a high incidence of concurrent diabetes mellitus.
3) Arab-Built Lunar Spacecraft: A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket recently carried into space the first ever Arab-built lunar spacecraft. It was launched from the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida.
- The mission is taking a low energy route to the moon and is due to arrive around April 2023.
- It was built by Dubai’s Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC), in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and is being delivered by the HAKUTO-R lander, engineered by Japanese lunar exploration company ispace
- If the landing is successful, HAKUTO-R will also become the first commercial spacecraft ever to make a controlled landing on the moon.
- Scheduled to touch down in the Atlas crater the northeast part of the moon, the rover has been designed to withstand the lunar night, when temperatures can reach as low as -183°C, or -297.4°F.
4) “Holy Grail” of Energy Production: Scientists have been able to generate higher energy in a fusion experiment than the energy applied for causing the fusion reaction.
- Nuclear fusion is described as the “holy grail” of energy production, as it is almost limitless, requires no fossil fuels, and leaves behind no hazardous waste or GHG emissions.
- It is the process that powers the Sun and other stars. It works by taking pairs of light atoms and forcing them together – this “fusion” releases a lot of energy.
- For example, the fusion of two nuclei of a heavier isotope of hydrogen, called tritium
- Issue: forcing and keeping the elements together in fusion requires very high temperatures and pressures.
5) Nirbhaya Fund: For implementation of initiatives aimed at enhancing the safety and security for women in the country. Established in: 2013 by Union Finance Ministry.
- Type: It is a non-lapsable corpus fund. It was a 10 billion corpus
- The fund is administered by the Department of Economic Affairs of the finance ministry.