1) Fujiwhara Effect : Meteorologists were mesmerized by Typhoon Hinnamnor as it provided a textbook example of a phenomenon known as the Fujiwhara Effect.
- it is any interaction between tropical storms formed around the same time in the same ocean region with their centres or eyes at a distance of less than 1,400 km, with intensity that could vary between a depression and a super typhoon
- The interaction could lead to changes in the track and intensity of either or both storms systems. In rare cases, the two systems could merge to form a bigger storm.
2) Open Offer : An open offer is a secondary market offering, similar to a rights issue
- According to the SEBI (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Rules, an open offer is an offer made by the acquirer to the shareholders of the target company inviting them to tender their shares in the target company at a particular price.
- The primary purpose of an open offer is to provide an exit option to the shareholders of the target company on account of the change in control or substantial acquisition of shares, occurring in the target company.
- An open offer is triggered if an acquirer holds more than 25 per cent of the public shareholding in the company.
3) Bluebugging : It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection. Bluebugging attacks work by exploiting Bluetooth-enabled devices.
- Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts.
4) Gram-straining : it is a common technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents. Gram-negative bacteria stain red when this process is used. Gram-positive bacteria stain blue.
- Gram-negative bacteria are enclosed in a protective capsule which prevents white blood cells (which fight infection) from ingesting the bacteria. Under the capsule, they have an outer membrane that protects them against certain antibiotics, such as penicillin.
- When disrupted, this membrane releases toxic substances called endotoxins. Endotoxins contribute to the severity of symptoms during infections with gram-negative bacteria.
- Acinetobacter baumannii, a gram-negative bacteria known to cause infection in the blood, urinary tract and lungs
5) Black Corals : Antipatharians, also known as black corals or thorn corals, are an order of soft deep-water corals. Antipatharians are a cosmopolitan order, existing at nearly every location and depth, with the sole exception of brackish waters.
- However, they are most frequently found on continental slopes. it can be found growing both in shallow waters and down to depths of over 8,000 metres, and some individual corals can live for over 4,000 years.
- Black corals are filter feeders and eat tiny zooplankton that are abundant in deep waters.
- They are not listed in the IUCN Red List.