Corruption is dishonest behavior by those in positions of power.
- Those who abuse their power may be individuals or they may belong to organizations, such as businesses or governments.
- India was ranked 85 among 180 countries in the corruption perception index 2021.
Causes of corruption
- Legacy issues: Pre liberalization license permit raj catered by Monopolies and restrictive trade practices facilitated the corruption. The lack of economic freedom led to abuse of the system.
- Political system: Election funding is not transparentmaking it prone to the usage of black money and funding based on quid pro quo. It leads to crony capitalism, an unholy nexus between politicians and corporates.
- Criminalization of politics- when the rule-breakers become rule makers, the casualty is the rule of law.
- Low levels of formalization(merely 10%) of the economy breed black money.
- Unequal distribution of wealth – Transparency International data suggests that corruption is directly proportionate to the economic gap in a nation.
- Legal lacunae: Archaic laws like IPC 1860 don’t capture the complexities of administration and lead to the escape of wrongdoers.
- Dilution of the RTI act and political misuse of CBI and other agencies.
- Judicial delays
- Lack of protection to good Samaritans, Near non-existent whistleblowers protection
- Social problems: The mindset of the citizenry that doesn’t look at the problems seriously and even accepts it as a necessary part of the system.
- Failure of social morality, education system to inculcate the values
- Corruption Risk Mapping
- Identifying corruption risks
- Evaluating extent of corruption
- Developing a corruption complaints system
2. Register and Sunset Clauses
- Clarification of regulation, ownership, funding systems and obligations
- Publishing contracts and improving the ability of the energy sector to predict changes
3. Transparency initiatives
- Strengthening the right to information and formal reporting requirements
- Dissemination of information on plans, proposals and projects
- Involvement of media and free press
- Assisting with socially responsible corporate reporting
- Making publicly available conflict of interest roles
4. Enhanced enforcement of anti-corruption laws
- Strengthening regulatory and justice system
- Potential restructuring and the unbundling of energy assets
- Mandatory audits of finances
- Implementing a whistleblowing system with adequate protections
- Developing a punishment system for abuses, or enhancing enforcement to increase investigations and convictions
- Signing the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and other efforts (e.g., Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Bribery Act)
5. Shared-ownership models
- Balancing stakeholder interests in policymaking
- Ensuring the participation of local actors or civil society
- Addressing disparities and the interests of vulnerable groups