- Vyommitra: Vyommitra is a combination of two Sanskrit words Vyoma (Space) and Mitra (Friend).It is a female robot designed and developed by the ISRO to fly aboard unmanned test missions ahead of the Gaganyaan human spaceflight mission.It is referred to as a half-humanoid robot as she doesn’t have legs. However, she can bend forward and sideways. Besides going on uncrewed Gaganyaan missions, she will accompany astronauts on manned missions too. The AI-enabled robot, which can withstand vibrations and shock during the flight, has been designed to resemble a human with facial expressions, speech, and sight capabilities. It is equipped with the capability to monitor module parameters, issue alerts, and execute life support operations. It can perform tasks such as operating switch panels, and serving as a companion to astronauts, engaging in conversations, recognising them, and responding to their inquiries.
- European Free Trade Association (EFTA): It is an intergovernmental organisation established in 1960 by the Stockholm Convention. The objective is to promotes free trade and economic integration between its members within Europe and globally. EFTA currently has four member countries: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. The EFTA members are all open, competitive economies committed to the progressive liberalisation of trade in the multinational arena as well as in free trade agreements. In contrast to the European Union (EU), EFTA is not a customs union. This means that the individual EFTA States are free to set their own customs tariffs and arrange other foreign trade measures vis-à-vis the non-EFTA States. The association is responsible for the management of: the free trade between the EFTA countries; EFTA’s participation in the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union and three EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway, but not Switzerland);EFTA’s worldwide network of free trade agreements. The EFTA countries have developed one of the largest networks of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). These FTAs span over 60 countries and territories, including the EU.
- ENACT Partnership: Enhancing Nature-based Solutions for an Accelerated Climate Transformation (ENACT) was launched by Germany and Egypt along with the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It was launched at the Conference of Parties (COP27), which took place at Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt in 2022. Other member countries: Canada, European Union, France, Japan, Malawi, Norway, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Belgium, Pakistan, Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States. It is an ambitious global initiative that seeks to coordinate global efforts to address climate change, land and ecosystem degradation, and biodiversity loss through Nature-based Solutions.
It aims to:
- Enhance the protection from and resilience to climate impacts of at least 1 billion vulnerable people.
- Secure up to 2.4 billion hectares of healthy natural and sustainable ecosystems, and significantly increase global mitigation efforts through protecting and restoring carbon-rich ecosystems.
Secretariat: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) hosts its secretariat.