- Pralay ballistic missiles: It is a quasi-ballistic surface-to-surface missile. It can hit targets 150-500 km away. The missile can carry 350-700 kg of high-grade explosives. It is developed by the Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO)It is powered by a solid propellant rocket motorand other new technologies. The missile guidance system includes state-of-the-art navigation and integrated avionics.It can change its path after covering a certain range in mid-air.
- Santiniketan: Santiniketan, the home of late Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, has been added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. It is located in the state of West Bengal.
It was established in 1901 by Rabindranath Tagore.It was a residential school and centre for art based on ancient Indian traditions.
In 1921, a ‘world university’ was established at Santiniketan, later recognised as ‘Visva Bharati’. Visva-Bharati in Santiniketan is Bengal’s only central university whose chancellor is the Prime Minister.It is distinct from the prevailing British colonial architectural orientations of the early 20th century and of European modernism.It represents approaches toward pan-Asian modernity, drawing on ancient, medieval and folk traditions from across the region.
- World Ozone Day: World Ozone Day, or International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, is observed annually on September 16.It is celebrated every year to spread awareness among people about the depletion of the Ozone Layer and the measures taken/ to be taken to preserve it. The theme for World Ozone Day 2023 is “Montreal Protocol: fixing the ozone layer and reducing climate change”. In 1994, the UN General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone layer. The protocol was signed on September 16, 1987, in Montreal, Canada, to address the depletion of the ozone layer.
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prize: Recently, the latest set of winners for the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize was announced. For the second time in a row, CSIR failed to honour a single woman scientist for outstanding contribution to science and technology.
Instituted in 1958 by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), about 12 scientists under the age of 45 years win this prize every year. The prizes cover seven domains of science; physical, chemical, biological, medical, engineering, mathematics and atmospheric.It is known to be a significant boost not just to the scientific career of the winner but also to the profile of their institution. Asima Chatterjee was the first woman to win it in the Chemical Sciences category in 1961.It took 14-year-long wait for the next woman laureate, and a 48-year-long wait for a woman to win it in her category.The 23 winners across disciplines in 2021 and 2022 are all men. This means that only 19 out of the almost 600 awarded Bhatnagar prizes have gone to women scientists.The Nobel Prizes have a similarly pathetic gender ratio. Only 24 of the 343 science prizes have gone to women.