GAGAN satellite technology: GAGAN is the acronym for GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation.It is jointly developed by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) and the Airports Authority of India (AAI).It uses a system of ground stations to provide necessary augmentations to the GPS standard positioning service (SPS) navigation signal.Itis designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely on GPS for all phases of flight.In addition, GAGAN will provide benefits beyond aviation to all modes of transportation, including maritime, highways, and railroads.There are only four Space-Based augmentation systems available in the world namely India (GAGAN), US (WAAS,) Europe(EGNOS) and Japan (MSAS).
Fairbank’s Disease: This disease also known as Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED). It is a rare genetic disorder that affects the growing ends of bones. Bones usually elongate by a process that involves the depositing of cartilage at the ends of the bones, called ossification.
This cartilage then mineralizes and hardens to become bone. In MED, this process is defective.Symptoms are joint pain in the hips and knees, early-onset arthritis, a waddling walk, and mild short stature as adults.Most people are diagnosed during childhood, but mild cases may not be diagnosed until adulthood. MED patient usually requires management of pain and orthopedic procedures.
Performance Audit on Derailment in Indian Railways: According to the CAG Audit nearly three fourth of 217 consequential train accidents across the country between 2017-18 and 2020-21 were caused by derailments.The focus of the audit was to ascertain whether measure to prevent derailments and collisions were clearly laid down and implemented by the Ministry of Railways.It also analysed the performance of Rashtriya Rail SanrakshaKosh (RRSK). The RRSK was created in 2017-18 with a corpus of Rs 1 lakh crore over a period of five year.Classification of Train Accidents:Consequential Train Accidents: Includes train accidents with serious repercussions in terms of either: loss of human life/human injury/loss of Railway property/Interruption to railway traffic. Out of 217 “consequential train accidents”, 163 were due to derailments during 2017-18 to 2020-21.This was followed by accidents due to fire in trains (20), accidents at unmanned level-crossings (13), collisions (11), accidents at manned level crossing (8).The Major Factors Responsible for Derailments:Maintenance of tracks (167 cases),Deviation of track parameters beyond permissible limits (149 cases),Bad driving/over speeding (144 cases).
Kavach System: It is an indigenously developed Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system.Kavach was developed by the Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO).It is a set of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification devices installed in locomotives, in the signalling system as well the tracks, that talk to each other using ultra-high radio frequencies to control the brakes of trains and also alert drivers, all based on the logic programmed into them.Applications: It has been designed to assist locomotive pilots in avoiding Signal Passing At Danger (SPAD) and overspeeding The system can alert the loco pilot, take control of the brakes and bring the train to a halt automatically when it notices another train on the same line within a prescribed distance.The device also continuously relays the signals ahead to the locomotive, making it useful for loco pilots in low visibility.