- Section 106 of the Indian Evidence Act: Section 106 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, deals with the burden of proof in cases where a fact is within the special knowledge of a person. This section applies to civil and criminal cases alike and lays down an important principle of evidence.
The section states that when any fact is especially within the knowledge of any person, the burden of proving that fact is upon that person.This means that if a fact is known to a particular person and not to others, it is the responsibility of that person to prove it in court.
For example, in a case where the ownership of a property is disputed, and the disputed property was in the possession of the defendant, the burden of proving that he acquired the property lawfully and has the right to possess it will be on the defendant.
Similarly, in a criminal case where the accused is alleged to have killed someone with a knife, the burden of proving that the accused used the knife to commit the crime will be on the prosecution.The burden of proof under Section 106 is not absolute, and the person who has the special knowledge of the fact is only required to prove it to the extent that is reasonable in the circumstances. The person is not required to prove the fact beyond all doubt, but only to the extent that a reasonable person would believe it to be true.
- Atmospheric Perturbations around the Eclipse Path (APEP) mission: The mission will involve launching of three rockets equipped with scientific instruments. The objective is to know how the upper atmosphere will change during the eclipse, especially the moment when there would be a sudden reduction in light.
During an eclipse, the sudden drop in sunlight causes changes in the ionosphere, creating waves that ripple through this atmospheric layer. It will measure changes in electric and magnetic fields, density, and temperature.
This launch will take place at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, with a specific focus on the ionosphere.According to NASA, the ionosphere’s temperature and density are projected to decrease during the eclipse, resulting in a wave-like disturbance that has the potential to disrupt GPS and other satellite communications. The rockets will be positioned just outside the path of annularity, where the Moon moves directly in front of the Sun. Each rocket will deploy four small scientific instruments designed to record changes in electric and magnetic fields, density, and temperature.
- Gangetic river dolphin: It is a freshwater species and one of the few river dolphins found in the world. It inhabits the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. It has been recognized as India’s National Aquatic Animal. It has a long thin snout, rounded belly, stocky body and large flippers. It feeds majorly on fishes and is usually found in counter-current systems of the main river channel. Its eyes lack lens, and as a result, this species is also referred to as the “blind dolphin”. They have a highly developed bio-sonar system that facilitates them to hunt for fish even in murky waters. Being a mammal, the Ganges River dolphin cannot breathe in the water and must surface every 30-120 seconds. Because of the sound it produces when breathing, the animal is popularly referred to as the ‘Susu’.
IUCN: Endangered,Wildlife (Protection) Act: Schedule-I,CITES: Appendix I.