- WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism: The Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU)is the main WTO agreement on settling disputes. The General Council of WTO convenes as the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB)to deal with disputes between WTO members. The DSB has the authority to: establish dispute settlement panels; refer matters to arbitration, adopt panel, Appellate Body and arbitration reports; maintain surveillance over the implementation of recommendations and rulings contained in such reports; authorize suspension of concessions in the event of non-compliance with those recommendations and rulings. Ideally disputes are resolved through negotiations. If this is not possible, WTO Members can request the establishment of a panel to settle the dispute. The panel will issue a report, which can subsequently be appealed before the WTO’s Appellate Body on questions of law. Appeals are handled by the permanent seven-member Appellate Body which is set up by the DSB and broadly represents the range of WTO membership. It hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought by WTO members. The Appellate Body can uphold, modify or reverse the legal findings and conclusions of a panel. If a WTO member does not comply with recommendations from dispute settlement, then trade compensation or sanctions, for example in the form of increases in customs duties, may follow.
- Morocco: It is a mountainous country in western North Africa that lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar. It retains much of its ancient architecture and even more of its traditional customs. Morocco’s largest city and major Atlantic Ocean port is Casablanca, an industrial and commercial centre. Capital: Rabat. It borders Algeria to the east and southeast, the Western Sahara to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north.
It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Two small Spanish enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla, are situated on the country’s northern coast. Major mountain ranges: Atlas and Rif. Spoken Languages: Arabic and Amazigh (Tamazight).Religion: Predominantly Islam with a rich Islamic heritage. Morocco has a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses. The Moroccan economy remains heavily dependent on the export of raw materials.
- Global Biofuels Alliance: It is an India-led Initiative to develop an alliance of Governments, International organisations and Industry to facilitate the adoption of biofuels.
A total of 19 countries and 12 international organisations have so far agreed to join the alliance, including both G20 members and non-member countries. India, Brazil and the US is the founding members of the alliance. This Alliance will be aimed at facilitating cooperation and intensifying the use of sustainable biofuels, including in the transportation sector. It will place emphasis on strengthening markets, facilitating global biofuels trade, developing concrete policy lesson-sharing and providing technical support for national biofuels programs worldwide.
It will support worldwide development and deployment of sustainable biofuels by offering capacity-building exercises across the value chain, technical support for national programs and promoting policy lessons-sharing. It will facilitate mobilising a virtual marketplace to assist industries, countries, ecosystem players and key stakeholders in mapping demand and supply, as well as connecting technology providers to end users trade.