1) Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP): The GRAP is a step-by-step plan to counter Delhi-NCR’s deteriorating air quality. It was formulated by the Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Authority (EPCA) jointly with the Delhi government in 2017.
- it is an emergency response mechanism and is only enforced when air pollution reaches a certain threshold. Moreover, the plan is incremental and adaptable
- It has been prepared for implementation under different Air Quality Index (AQI) categories namely, Moderate & Poor, Very Poor, Severe, Severe+ and Emergency as per National Air Quality Index.
2) Rosetta Stone: it is a large stone slab believed to be a piece of a bigger rock. It was discovered by the French military leader Napoleon’s army in Northern Egypt and was taken by British following Napoleon’s defeat as per the provisions of the 1801 Treaty of Alexandria.
- The rock slab has inscriptions of the same text in three different scripts – hieroglyphs, demotic (an ancient Egyptian script) and ancient Greek.
- The inscription of the slab conveys a decree or public message. This is similar to the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka’s edicts that featured Buddha’s teachings and victories in wars.
- The Rosette Stone was used by French philologist Jean-Francois Champollion to decipher hieroglyphs. His work helped improve the understanding of ancient Egyptian language and culture.
3) United Nations Peacekeeping Forces (UNPKF): UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel. Peacekeeping forces are contributed by member states on a voluntary basis.
- UN Peacekeeping began in 1948 when the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of UN military observers to the Middle East.
- It helps countries navigate the difficult path from conflict to peace. India has been among the largest troop-contributing countries to the UN peacekeeping missions
4) Smart Contracts: A smart contract is a self-executing contract with the terms of the agreement between buyer and seller being directly written into lines of code. The code and the agreements contained therein exist across a distributed, decentralized blockchain network. The code controls the execution, and transactions are trackable and irreversible.
- Crypto exchanges, decentralized apps (dApps), the automated buying or selling of orders, and even NFT-based games often rely on smart contracts to run smoothly.
- To create them effectively, programming languages are a must: C++, Java, Solidity, Rusk, Python Rholang, PHP, and Haskell.
- A smart contract failure can cause platform outages, and exploitation of the codes could devalue the entire ecosystem.
5) Decline in corporate investment in India: even though, the Government reduced corporate tax (from 30% to 22% and to 15% for new manufacturing companies), India’s investment rate has declined to about 31% of GDP as an average of 2015-16 to 2019-2020 from its peak of 39% in FY2012.
Corporate sector accounts for only about half of total investments, amounting to about 15% of GDP. Private investment accounts for close to 75% of total capital formation in the economy
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