Convention on Migratory Species: Bonn Convention is a name of the international treaty on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals, that was adopted in Bonn, Germany in 1979. It came into force in 1983. The convention is simply known as Bonn Convention or CMS (Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species) which is an important part of international environment conventions and protocols. India hosted the CMS COP 13 at Gandhinagar in Gujarat. Two appendices under the Bonn Convention:
- Appendix I (Endangered Species)- It comprises the list of those migratory species that are assessed as being in danger of extinction throughout their range or in some significant portion of their range. It also defines endangered species as those with a high risk of extinction in the wild in near future, as also defined by IUCN.
- Appendix II – It comprises those migratory species that need conservation through international agreements and will significantly benefit from such conservational efforts.
UNGA: The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. Each year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session, and general debate, which many heads of state attend and address. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority and are non-binding in nature. The President of the General Assembly is elected each year by assembly to serve a one-year term of office.
International Labour Organization: It is the only tripartite U.N. agency. It brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men. Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations. Became the first affiliated specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946. Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland Founding Mission: social justice is essential to universal and lasting peace. Promotes internationally recognized human and labour rights. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.
Gig Worker: In general, gig workers are those engaged in hourly or part-time jobs in everything from catering events to software development. They have a non-standard work arrangement with their employers and share a non-traditional employer-employee relationship. The work is usually temporary and completed within a stipulated time.
Platform Worker: A platform worker implies a worker working for an organisation that provides specific services using an online platform directly to individuals or organisations. Examples of platform workers include Ola or Uber drivers, Swiggy or Zomato delivery agents, etc. The Social Security Code defines a platform worker as “a person engaged in or undertaking platform work”. The new Labour Codes, enacted by the Parliament in September 2020, acknowledge gig and platform workers as new occupational categories in India.