1) Aeronomy: It refers to the scientific study of the upper atmospheric regions of the Earth and other solar system bodies.
- It includes the distribution of temperature, density, and chemical constituents, and the chemical reactions that occur.
- It also includes the studies of aurora, airglow, the ionosphere, Van Allen radiation belts, cosmic rays, and radiative and photochemical phenomena.
2) Orcas: They are toothed whales and are generally found in temperate and tropical waters (from the Arctic to the Antarctic). They have long life spans and are highly social
- Orcas are found across the world and are also known as “killer whales”. Technically, killer whales are the largest member of the dolphin family. So, really, they’re killer dolphins. But because of their size, the word “whale” is used in their name
- As the top ocean predator, they kill other animals to make a living
- IUCN: Data deficient
3) Exercise “SURYA KIRAN”: It is an Indo-Nepal joint army training exercise.
- It is conducted annually between India and Nepal with the aim to enhance inter-operability in jungle warfare and counter-terrorism operations in mountainous terrain and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) under UN mandate.
4) Krishi-Decision Support System (Krishi-DSS): The Ministry of Agriculture and Department of Space signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to Krishi-DSS using satellite data.
- This will enhance the evidence-based decision-making capability of all the stakeholders in the agriculture sector by way of integration with MOSDAC and BHUVAN (Geo-platform) of ISRO and systems of ICAR.
- Krishi-DSS is being developed on the lines of Gati Shakti, using RISAT-1A and VEDAS of the Department of Space.
5) Bhuvan Portal: It is a type of web portal used to find and access geographic information (geospatial information) and associated geographic services (display, editing, analysis, etc.) via the Internet. Developed by ISRO and MapmyIndia.
- Its services will reflect the true borders of the country as per the information available from Government of India. By using MapmyIndia maps and applications instead of the foreign map apps, users can better protect their privacy.
- VEDAS is Visualisation of Earth observation Data and Archival System.
- It is an online geo-processing platform using optical, microwave, thermal and hyperspectral data covering applications particularly meant for academia, research and problem solving.
- MOSDAC (Meteorological and Oceanographic Satellite Data Archival Centre) is a data repository for all the meteorological missions of ISRO.
- It deals with weather-related information, oceanography and tropical water cycles.