1) Vacancy of Deputy Speaker: Lok Sabha does not have a deputy speaker since 2019.
- Article 93 says that Lok Sabha shall, as soon as may be, choose two members to be Speaker and Deputy Speaker so often as the offices become vacant. However, it does not provide a specific time frame. Article 178 contains the corresponding position for Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of a state.
- Articles 93 and 178 use the word “shall”, indicating that the election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker is mandatory under the Constitution.
- The Deputy Speaker is elected by the Lok Sabha from amongst its members right after the election of the Speaker. The date of election of the Deputy Speaker is fixed by the Speaker.
2) G20 Culture Group meeting: Ministry of Culture is organising the First G20 Culture Group (CWG) meeting in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh. The working group will have four meetings and they will be held in Khajuraho, Bhubaneshwar, and Hampi.
- The theme of the Khajuraho meet is “Protection and Restitution of Cultural Property”.
- The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which was constructed by the Chandela Dynasty between 950-1050 AD.
- These monuments are built in Nagara-style architecture and ornamented with intricate and detailed sculptures. The monuments include Hindu and Jain
3) Postpartum depression:
- It is a complex mix of physical, emotional, and behavioral changes that happen in some women after giving birth. PPD is a form of major depression that begins within 4 weeks after delivery.
- About 1 in 1,000 women develop a more serious condition called postpartum psychosis.
- The chemical changes involve a rapid drop in hormones after delivery.
- Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is defined as a blood loss of 500 ml or more within 24 hours after birth. PPH is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries, and the primary cause of nearly one quarter of all maternal deaths globally.
4) Marginal cost of funds-based lending rate (MCLR): It is the minimum interest rate below which no bank is permitted to lend money. It is determined by banks internally, depending upon the loan repayment time.
- The RBI introduced the MCLR methodology for fixing interest rates in 2016. It replaced the base rate structure.
- MCLR is calculated based on four components Marginal cost of fund, Negative carry on account of cash reserve ratio, Operating costs, Tenor premium
- The base rate is based on the average cost of funds, but MCLR is based on the marginal or incremental cost of money. MCLR depends on the repo rates changed by RBI while Base Rate does not depend on the repo rates changed by RBI.
5) Global Sea-level Rise and Implications: released by World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).
- India, China, Bangladesh and the Netherlands face the highest threat of sea-level rise globally.
- WMO reported that the speed of melting of the largest global ice mass in Antarctica is uncertain.