1) The Hiroshima AI Process for Global AI Governance: Recently, the annual G7 Summit held in Hiroshima, Japan, initiated the Hiroshima AI Process (HAP), which is likely to conclude by December 2023, signaling a significant step towards regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Role of HAP in resolving the issue of IPR in relation to Generative AI:
- Currently, there is ambiguity regarding the relationship between AI and IPR (Intellectual Property Rights), leading to conflicting interpretations and legal decisions in different jurisdictions.
- The HAP can contribute by establishing clear rules and principles regarding AI and IPR, helping the G7 countries reach a consensus on this matter.
- One specific area that can be addressed is the application of the “Fair Use” doctrine, which permits certain activities such as teaching, research, and criticism without seeking permission from the copyright owner.
- By developing a common guideline for G7 countries, the HAP can provide clarity on the permissible use of copyrighted materials in machine learning datasets as fair use, with certain conditions. Additionally, it can distinguish between the use of copyrighted materials for machine learning specifically and other AI-related uses.
2) National Commission for Scheduled Castes: The National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) has recently issued a notice to Zomato, regarding an advertisement that was deemed “inhuman” and casteist.
- The NCSC is a constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled Castes and to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests.
- Initially, the constitution provided for the appointment of a Special Officer under Article 338.The special officer was designated as the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
- 65th Amendment Act, 1990 amended Article 338 of the Constitution and replaced the one-member system with a multi-member National Commission for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes(ST).
- 89th Amendment Act, 2003 amended Article 338 and separated the erstwhile body into NCSC and NCST.
- The NCSC comprises a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson, and three additional Members. These positions are filled through the President’s appointment, indicated by a warrant under his hand and seal.
3) SIPRI Yearbook 2023: Recently, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Yearbook 2023 revealed that China could potentially have as many Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) as U.S. or Russia by the end of the decade.
- The nine nuclear-armed states, including the United States, Russia, and China, continue to modernize and expand their nuclear arsenals, deploying new nuclear-armed or nuclear-capable weapon systems in 2022.
- Russia and the United States possess almost 90%of all nuclear weapons, with relatively stable sizes of their respective nuclear arsenals.
- Transparency and dialogue regarding nuclear forces declined between Russia and the United States following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
- India’s nuclear arsenal also expanded, increasing from 160 warheads in 2022 to 164 warheads in 2023 and that of Pakistan from 165 to 170 in the same period.
- China’s nuclear arsenal grew from 350 warheads in January 2022 to 410 warheads in January 2023, according to the SIPRI.