1) ‘Indira Jaising vs. Union of India’ (2017): In 2017, the Supreme Court released a list of “Guidelines to Regulate the Conferment of Designation of Senior Advocates” after a case filed by India’s first woman Senior Advocate Indira Jaising for greater transparency in the process of designating.
- The Court guidelines discouraged the system of ‘voting by secret ballot”, except in cases where it was “unavoidable.”
- A “Committee for Designation of Senior Advocates” was created under CJI and consists of two senior-most Supreme Court judges, the Attorney General of India, and a “member of the Bar” nominated by the chair and other member who were to meet at least twice a year.
- The CJI or any other judge could recommend the name of an advocate for the designation of senior lawyers. Advocates could also submit their applications to the committee, after which the committee members would evaluate them on several criteria like 10-20 years of legal practice where qualification for eligibility is not less than that prescribed for a district judge.
- Once a candidate’s name is approved, it will be forwarded to the Full Court to decide based on the majority. The Full Court can also recall the designation of a senior advocate.
2) Taijiquan: Taijiquan, also known as tai chi, is a traditional physical practice characterized by relaxed, circular movements that works in harmony with breath regulation and the cultivation of a righteous and neutral mind. China’s taijiquan was added to UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage list
3) H3N2 Influenza Virus: The influenza-causing virus subtype H3N2 is a subtype of influenza virus A
- Both birds and mammals can contract H3N2 viruses. It is a type of RNA virus, meaning that it uses ribonucleic acid instead of DNA to replicate itself.
- The virus has evolved into several strains in pigs, humans, and birds.
- This virus is extremely contagious and spreads through droplets released by an infected person when coughing, sneezing, or talking. Prevention: flu vaccine annually.
4) Influenza Virus: Influenza viruses, which cause the infectious disease known as flu, are of four different types: A, B, C, and D. Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans. Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and pigs.
- Influenza A is further classified into different subtypes and one of them is H3N2.
- H for hemagglutinin, a protein that causes red blood cells to agglutinate.
- N for neuraminidase, an enzyme that cleaves the glycosidic bonds of the monosaccharide sialic acid (previously called neuraminic acid).
- Various hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins are encoded by multiple influenza viruses. Theoretically, 198 distinct combinations of these proteins are feasible given that there are 11 different forms of neuraminidase and 18 different types of hemagglutinin.
5) Starberry-Sense: Researchers at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) have developed a low-cost star sensor for astronomy and small CubeSat class satellite missions.
- Star sensor is one of the precise attitude determination sensors. It is an electro-optical system that takes an image from a set of stars and by comparing it with the star catalogue determines angle deviation of the satellite and modifies its attitude. Star sensor is composed of baffle, optical system, detector, and electronic and image processing system.
- This star sensor is less expensive than those on the market by less than 10% as is developed by using Raspberry Pi Zero which is a compact size (smaller than a credit card) computer with low power consumption, and ability to run custom software.