1) Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID): It is a public platform started by the WHO in 2008 for countries to share genome sequences. Created as an alternative to the public domain sharing model, GISAID’s sharing mechanism took into account the concerns of Member States by providing a publicly accessible database designed by scientist for scientist, to improve the sharing of influenza data.
- In 2010 the Federal Republic of Germany became the official host of the GISAID platform.
- GISAID’s database access agreement ensures that contributors of genetic sequence data do not forfeit their intellectual property rights to the data.
2) Jagannath Puri Temple: The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
- Jagannath Puri temple is called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ where, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death has been nullified in Puri due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.
- This temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram).
- There are four gates to the temple- Eastern ‘Singhdwara’ which is the main gate with two crouching lions, Southern ‘Ashwadwara’ (Horse), Western ‘Vyaghra Dwara (Tiger) and Northern ‘Hastidwara’ (Elephant). In front of the entrance stands the Aruna stambha or sun pillar, which was originally at the Sun Temple in Konark.
- The image of Jagannath is made of wood and is ceremoniously replaced every twelve or nineteen years by an exact replica.
3) Price tag attack policy: The price tag attack policy, also sometimes referred to as “mutual responsibility” is the name given to the attacks and acts of vandalism committed primarily in the occupied West Bank by Israeli Jewish fundamentalist settler youths against Palestinian Arabs. The attackers officially claim that the acts are committed to “exact a price from local Palestinians or from the Israeli security forces for any action taken to remove them from their settlements”.
- These actions come as retaliation for Palestinian acts of violence against settlers, or decisions by the Israeli government to curb Jewish construction in the West Bank.
4) Raccoon dogs: neither dogs nor raccoons, they belong to the canid family and are the only canids that hibernate during the winter.
- Raccoon dogs are native to east Asia and commonly found in parts of China, Korea, and Japan, where they are known as tanuki. They are also found in Europe.
- EU report declared them “one of the most successful alien carnivores in Europe.
- Least Concern in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
- Laboratory experiments have shown that raccoon dogs are susceptible to and capable of transmitting the novel coronavirus. But that does not mean that they are the natural reservoir for the virus.
5) Black Swan Events: It is a term used to define highly improbable events, impossible to predict, which have a massive impact on the world, but which seem obvious in hindsight.
- THE GREY RHINO: it is a term used to define a danger that’s slow moving, obvious and yet is conveniently ignored. Somewhat of an opposite of a Black Swan.
- Its argued that the Climate Crisis is one such event.