1) ‘KAVACH’ System: indigenously developed as an automatic train protection system to prevent accidents due to human error, by Indian Railways.
- It is a set of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification devices installed in locomotives, in the signalling system as well the tracks, that talk to each other using ultra high radio frequencies to control the brakes of trains and also alert drivers, all based on the logic programmed into them.
- One of its features is that by continuously refreshing the movement information of a train, it is able to send out triggers when a loco pilot jumps signal, called Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD), a grave offence in railway operations with respect to safety, and the key to accidents like collision.
2) Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM): The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing RGM for development and conservation of indigenous bovine breeds since 2014.
- The scheme is important for enhancing milk production and productivity of bovines to meet the growing demand of milk and making dairying more remunerative
- All the components of Scheme will be implemented on 100% grant-in-aid basis except the components of: accelerated breed improvement programme, promoting sex sorted semen and establishment of breed multiplication farm
3) Green Wall/ Bengal Barrier: West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) has decided to set up 800 km Bio-Shield along its western fringe to stop pollutants from entering the State.
- Bio-Shield – A wall of Mega Plantations
- The Great Green wall of Sahel Region: It is an initiative to increase the amount of arable land in the Sahel, the region bordering Africa’s Sahara Desert.
- Eleven nations are investing in projects as varied as agroforestry to sustainable development – Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania, and Senegal. Organisations involved – GEF, WB, UNFCCD
4) Moa Makers of Joynagar: Said to date back to 1904, the moais made of aromatic khoi — popped rice — that is mixed with jaggery, sugar, cashew nuts and raisins.
- It has a short shelf life, lasting not more than five days without refrigeration.
- The high perishability has prevented it from being shipped abroad all these decades, and its export began, on a very small scale, only in 2020.
- GI tag for Joynagar Moa has been extended for 10 years.
5) Avian Flu: Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious viral disease caused by Influenza Type A viruses which generally affects poultry birds such as chickens and turkeys.
- AI viruses are broadly classified as low pathogenic AI (LPAI) and highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses, based on their pathogenicity. H5N1 strains come under HPAI viruses.
- The most common route of virus transmission is direct contact with infected birds but Human-to-human transmission is very rare.
- Avian influenza Type A viruses are classified based on two proteins on their surfaces – Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). There are about 18 HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes.