Finlandization: It refers to the policy of strict neutrality between Moscow (Russia) and the West that Finland followed during the decades of the Cold War. The principle of neutrality was rooted in the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (or YYA Treaty, from the Finnish “Ystavyys-, yhteistyo – ja avunantosopimus”) that Finland signed with the USSR in April 1948. The 1948 treaty lay at the heart of Finland’s foreign policy doctrine especially when Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1946-56) and Urho Kekkonen (1956-82) were President, and is known in international relations studies as the “Paasikivi-Kekkonen line”.
Biomass Cofiring: It refers to the concurrent blending and combustion of biomass materials with other fuels such as natural gas and coal within a boiler, which reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy generation and emissions without significantly increasing costs and infrastructure investments. In May 2021, to address the issue of air pollution due to farm stubble burning and to reduce carbon footprints of thermal power generation, Ministry of Power decided to set up a National Mission on use of Biomass in coal based thermal power plants.
Navroz: Navroz is the new year celebrations for Parsis (Zoroastrians) and Muslims (both Shia and Sunni). It is celebrated on 21st March every year. In 1079 AD, a Persian (Iranian) king named Jalaluddin Malekshah introduced this festival to generate revenue and collect taxes from people. It was observed on March 21 to mark the beginning of spring and the day of equinox. It is inscribed in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of India. In India it is known as Jamshed Navroz.
Kinzhal: Russia has claimed to have used Kinzhal missiles for the first time in Ukraine. Kinzhal, which means dagger, is an air-launched hypersonic missile (Hypersonic describes any speed faster than five times that of sound) with a reported range of 1,500-2,000km. It can carry nuclear payload of 480 kg. Hypersonic weapons are normally defined as fast, low-flying, and highly maneuverable weapons designed to be too quick and agile for traditional missile defence systems to detect in time.
AquaMAP: It is a new water management and policy centre that was inaugurated recently at IIT Madras. IIT Madras is collaborating with IIT Dharwad around the broad theme of ‘Data Science for Water Security and Agriculture Sustenance. AquaMAP aims at providing solutions for complex and challenging water problems by designing smart and optimal water management practices and implementing them in the field (in villages and towns). Other Key activities of AquaMAP include:
- Identify grand challenges in water/wastewater management.
- Set up of a state-of-the-art Hydro-Informatics Laboratory.