1) Ponzi Scheme: It is a fraudulent investing scam promising high rates of return with little risk to investors. It works like a pyramid scheme and generates returns for older investors by acquiring new investors, who are promised a large profit at little to no risk.
- It relies on a constant flow of new investments to continue to provide returns to older investors and when the flow of fresh investments runs out, the scheme falls apart.
- Ponzi schemes are banned under the Prize Chit and Money Circulation (Banning) Act, 1978.
- It is a Central Act but the respective State governments are the enforcement agency of this law. These are also dealt with by the Enforcement Directorate under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002.
2) LockBit Ransomware: LockBit, formerly known as “ABCD” ransomware, is a type of computer virus that enters someone’s computer and encrypts important files so they can’t be accessed.
- The virus first appeared in September 2019 and is called a “crypto virus”, because it asks for payment in cryptocurrency to unlock the files.
- LockBit is usually used to attack companies or organizations that can afford to pay a lot of money to get their files back. It uses a ransomware-as-a-service model to make money.
- It works as a self-spreading malware, not requiring additional instructions once it has successfully infiltrated a single device with access to an organisational intranet.
3) Armenian Genocide: It was the mass murder of at least 664,000 and up to 1.2 million Armenians by the nationalist ruling party of the Ottoman Empire, the Committee of Union and Progress, between 1915 and 1916.
- The Armenians were a primarily Christian ethnic group who had lived in Eastern Anatolia (modern day Eastern Turkey) for centuries.
- During the First World War, the Ottoman Empire joined forces with Germany and Austria-Hungary but suffered several significant defeats and quickly retreated.
- To conceal their failure from the public, the Ottoman leaders openly blamed their defeat on Armenians in the region and stated that they had betrayed their empire by fighting for and helping the enemy forces.
- This deliberate falsehood acted as a catalyst and justification for the genocide of the Armenian people
4) Malaria: Malaria is all set to become a notifiable disease across India, which will require cases to be reported to government authorities by law.
- A potentially life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes
- Causes: Four species of plasmodium parasites, namely plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium malariae, and plasmodium ovale
- Spread: Bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes
- Treatment: Antimalarial drugs; Vaccine: RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix)
- The move is part of India’s vision to become malaria-free by 2027 and to eliminate the disease by 2030.
- In India, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare maintains a list of notifiable diseases under the National Health Mission.
5) Insulin Shock: Insulin shock occurs when you have too much insulin in your blood. This can lead to hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar.
- If left untreated for too long, it can lead to loss of consciousness and even death.
- It can occur in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes if they are using certain medications.