1) Background Radiation high is Kerala: Background radiation is a measure of the level of ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources. It’s origin can be both natural and artificial.
- The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) specifies maximum radiation exposure levels and this has also been adopted by India’s atomic energy establishment.
- Public exposure shouldn’t exceed 1 milli-Sievert every year, those who work in plants or are by virtue of their occupation shouldn’t be exposed to over 30 milli-Sievert every year.
- Generally, it is measured in nanogray per second. A (nGy/s) is a decimal fraction of the SI-derived unit of ionizing radiation absorbed dose rate.
2) Biomining: It is a process of extracting valuable metals and minerals of economic interest from solid waste using microorganisms. The technique may also be used to clean up sites that have been polluted with metals
- Bacteria are the primary microorganisms used in biomining due to their ability to oxidise sulfur or iron compounds to generate acid and solubilize metal ions from ores.
- When the metal of interest is directly dissolved, the biomining process is called “bioleaching,” and when the metal of interest is made more accessible or “enriched” in the material left behind, it is called “biooxidation.”
- The environmental risks related to biomining are due to leakage of the acidic, metal-rich solution created by the microbes which is similar to the acid mine drainage from some abandoned mines.
3) Tipu Sultan: he was the last Muslim ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, before the taking over by Wodeyar Dynasty.
- Defeat in Third Anglo-Mysore War convinced Tipu to take measures to build a navy. He issued a Hukmnanah (ordinance) in 1796 for a strong naval force with headquarters at Seringapatam. He was the Pioneer of rocket technology and expanded iron cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned a military manual Fathul Mujahidin
- Introduced a new calendar in 1784. This calendar was known as Mauludi Era
4) Gravity-Operated Weighted Blocks: An Australian renewable energy company has developed a unique scheme to generate electricity using defunct mines, such as the Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) in Karnataka, India, to produce reliable and cost-effective renewable energy.
- It uses a weighted block of up to 40 tonnes up to the top of a mine shaft using renewable power during the day when it is available. When backup power is required, the heavy block will fall under gravity, powering a generator via a connected shaft or rotor. The depth to which the block falls can be determined via a braking system, giving control over the amount of power produced. It is similar to the approach of “pumped hydropower” storage.
5) IPCC AR6 working groups: This is the final report of the AR6, which integrates findings from six reports (3 working groups + 3 special reports) released by IPCC during the cycle which began in 2015.
- Working Group I deals with The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, Working Group II with Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability and Working Group III with Mitigation of Climate Change.