1) Total fertility rate: Total fertility rate (TFR) in simple terms refers to the total number of children born or likely to be born to a woman in her lifetime if she were subject to the prevailing rate of age-specific fertility in the population.
- TFR of about 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility.
- TFR lower than 2.1 children per woman — indicates that a generation is not producing enough children to replace itself, eventually leading to an outright reduction in population.
2) Prevention of Money Laundering Act: It was enacted as a response to India’s global commitment (including the Vienna Convention) to curb the menace of money laundering.
- Objectives of the Act: PMLA was enacted in 2002 and it came into force in 2005
- To prevent and control money laundering.
- To confiscate and seize the property obtained from the laundered money.
- To deal with any other issue connected with money laundering in India.
- The Adjudicating Authority is appointed by the central government. It decides whether the property attached or seized is involved in money laundering.
- An Appellate Tribunal appointed by the Government is given the power to hear appeals against the orders of the Adjudicating Authority. Orders of the tribunal can be appealed in the appropriate High Court.
3) Asiatic Lions: The Asiatic Lion is restricted to India. At present Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
- Its previous habitats consisted of West Asia and the Middle East before it became extinct in these regions.
- Asiatic lions are slightly smaller than African lions.
- The most striking morphological character, which is always seen in Asiatic lions, and rarely in African lions, is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- CITES: Appendix I
- Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: Schedule I
4) Cheetah: The cheetah is one of the oldest of the big cat species
- It is also the world’s fastest land mammal that lives in Africa and Asia.
- African cheetah has been reintroduced in Kuno national park.
- IUCN status: Vulnerable
- CITES: Appendix 1
5) Masala Bonds: are rupee-denominated bonds issued outside India by Indian entities or companies.
- In India, the masala bonds were first introduced by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank group, in 2014 in order to fund infrastructure projects.
- Masala Bonds, like any other off-shore bonds, are debt instruments that help to raise money in local currency from foreign investors.
- Both the government and private entities can issue these bonds.