1) Civil Nuclear Liability Act: Two main principles underlie nuclear liability law:
- Strict liability means that the operator of a nuclear facility is liable for any damage caused by a nuclear incident, regardless of fault or negligence.
- Exclusive liability means that only the operator can be held liable for a nuclear incident, and no other person or entity can be sued for compensation.
- The operator’s liability is capped at a certain amount, which varies depending on the country and the convention. For example, in India, it is capped at ₹1,500 crores.
- The limitation of liability also applies to the period within which claims for compensation can be made. For example, in India, claims must be filed within 10 years of the incident
- Exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the country where the nuclear incident occurred.
- Nuclear liability law is not uniform across the world.
2) Bihan Mela: It is known as the seed festival and the event is participated by the farmers.
- Preparations begin as soon as farmers have harvested Kharif crops
- It is celebrated by the members of the Kondh tribe in Odisha
- The Hill or Maliah Konds, are numerically the dominant group while the Plains Konds have adopted many aspects of Hindu religion and culture.
- These tribal people speak languages called Kui and Kuvi.
- The language has no script of its own, with the Oriya script used for writing Kui, and the Telugu script used for Kuvi.
3) AGNI DAMAN-23: It is a firefighting exercise conducted under the aegis of Indian Army’s HQ, Southern Command. Objective: Enhance synergy among firefighters to work together in the event of major fire incidents.
4) Sun halo: It is an optical phenomenon that occurs due to sunlight refracting millions of hexagonal ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.
- When white light passes through unique hexagonal ice crystals found in upper-level cirrus clouds, causing the halo to have colours.
- Light undergoes two refractions as it passes through the ice crystals and the bending that occurs depends on the ice crystal’s diameter.
- The lunar halos are mostly colourless as moonlight is not very bright.
- In the case of the Sun, these colours are more noticeable and appear as bright as a rainbow.
5) Dedicated Freight Corridor: It is a high speed & high-capacity railway corridor that is exclusively meant for the transportation of freight (goods & commodities).
- Under Ministry of Railways, the project involves the construction of six freight corridors traversing the entire country.
- Initially, the construction of two freight corridors,
- Western DFC connecting the states of Haryana & Maharashtra &
- Eastern DFC connecting the states Punjab & West Bengal, is being undertaken.
- The other four corridors include: North-South (Delhi-Tamil Nadu), East-West (West Bengal-Maharashtra), East-South (West Bengal-Andhra Pradesh) & South-South (Tamil Nadu-Goa).
- Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (WDFC): Dadri, U.P to Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Mumbai-1,468 km. The WDFC covers Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra & Uttar Pradesh.
- It is being funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency.
- Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC): Ludhiana Punjab to Dankuni West Bengal-1,760 km. The EDFC route covers Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand & West Bengal
- EDFC is being funded by the World Bank.
- Connecting Link for Eastern & Western Arm is under construction between Dadri & Khurja.