1) Tokenism: it is the act of doing something in order to show that a person/company is including people from minority or marginalised groups, but without sincerity and without showing an intent to increase diversity and promote inclusivity.
- Tokenistic acts can be dangerous and counter-productive for the tokens. One, they do not change prejudices about the community and secondly they don’t contribute to diversity, for diversity is more than just mere representation.
2) Section 45 (1) of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002: Section 45 (1) of the PMLA 2022.
- Section 45(1) of the PMLA requires that before a person is released on bail, the public prosecutor must be given an opportunity to oppose the application and secondly, when the application is opposed, the court must be satisfied that the accused is not guilty.
- The SC by upholding such stringent provisions overturns the principle of presumption of innocence — that an undertrial remains innocent until he is proven guilty.
3) Antarctic Treaty 1959: The Antarctic treaty remains the only example of a single treaty that governs a whole continent and one without a permanent population.
- The Antarctic Treaty was signed between 12 countries in Washington on 1st December 1959 for making the Antarctic Continent a demilitarized zone to be preserved for scientific research only.
- It entered into force in 1961 and has since been acceded by many other nations.
- Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude
- Currently it has 54 parties. India became a member of this treaty in 1983.
- Headquarters: Buenos Aires, Argentina.
4) Doha Agreement: In 2020, the United States signed a historic deal with the Taliban. The deal aims to end the 18-year-war in Afghanistan. The deal was signed in Doha (Qatar) and thus termed as Doha Agreement.
- The US will withdraw its troops from Afghanistan. Further, the NATO or coalition troop numbers will also be brought down simultaneously.
- Taliban will not allow any of its members, other individuals or groups including al-Qaeda to use the soil of Afghanistan to threaten the security of the United States and its allies.
5) Hellfire R9X missile: The United States used a special missile in its drone strikes in Afghanistan that does not explode but releases knife-like blades.
- The US drone strikes were carried out using the Hellfire missile. There are various variants of the Hellfire missile. The R9-X is also called the ‘Ninja’ bomb.