AFSPA: The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA)gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law.If reasonable suspicion exists, the army can also arrest a person without a warrant; enter or search premises without a warrant; and ban the possession of firearms.Any person arrested or taken into custody may be handed over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station along with a report detailing the circumstances that led to the arrest.
Specific Export Obligation: Under the Scheme, EPCG Authorizations are issued with actual user condition and import validity of 24 months to import capital goods (except those specified in negative list) for pre-production, production and post-production at zero customs duty, and subject to fulfilment of specific Export Obligation equivalent to 6 times of duties, taxes and cess saved on capital goods, to be fulfilled in 6 years from date of issue of Authorization.
Land Custom Station: The regional economy of South Asian countries sharing land borders is heavily fragmented by trade and transportation barriers.Addressing this, in 2012, India set up the Land Ports Authority of India (LPAI) through the LPAI Act, 2010, under the Ministry of Home Affairs.Land port is an area on the international borders including portions of national, State highways and other roads, and railways.It is notified as land Customs station or immigration check-post under the Customs Act, 1962 or the Foreigners’ Act, 1946.
Gangetic Dolphin: Ganges river dolphins live in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh.The Ganges river dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind.They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey, enabling them to “see” an image in their mind. They are also called ‘susu’.It is a reliable indicator of the health of the entire river ecosystem.It was recognised as the National Aquatic Animal in 2009, by the Government of India.Indian Wildlife (Protection), Act 1972: Schedule I.IUCN: Endangered.CITES: Appendix I (most endangered).Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): Appendix II (migratory species that need conservation and management or would significantly benefit from international co-operation).
De-dollarization: De-dollarisation refers to reducing the dollar’s dominance of global markets. It is a process of substituting US dollar as the currency used for:Trading oil and/ or other commodities, Buying US dollars for the forex reserves, Bilateral trade agreements, Dollar-denominated assets. The dominant role of the dollar in the global economy provides the US a disproportionate amount of influence over other economies. The US has for long used imposition of sanctions as a tool to achieve foreign policy goals.The de-dollarisation is driven by the desire to insulate the Central Banks of the Countries from geopolitical risks, where the status of the US dollar as a reserve currency can be used as an offensive weapon.