1) FRINJEX-23: It is the first joint military exercise between the Indian Army and French Army.
- This is the first time the two countries have engaged in a military exercise in a team format consisting of a company group to enhance interoperability, coordination, and cooperation.
- Indian-France Military Exercises: Exercise Garuda: Air Force; Exercise Varuna: Navy; Exercise Shakti: Army
2) Photobombing effect: it means the reduction in a space telescope’s ability to observe habitable exoplanets due to obscurity caused by other celestial bodies.
- According to NASA, when a telescope is pointed at an exoplanet, the light reflected by the planet could be contaminated by light from other planets in the same system- causing the photobomb effect. It stems from the “point-spread function” of the target exoplanet.
- PSF is the image created due to the diffraction of light coming from the source and becomes larger than the source for very distant objects, like an exoplanet.
3) Pyramid of Giza: Hidden corridor discovered in Pyramid of Giza using Cosmic-Ray Muon Radiography. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid and the tomb of Khufu, who is widely regarded as the greatest emperor of ancient Egypt.
- The Pyramid was built in the early 26th century BC. The pyramid is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.
4) Cosmic-Ray Muon Radiography: CMR is a technique used to study the density and composition of materials hidden within large and dense objects, such as geological formations, archaeological sites etc. The non-invasive technique involves using muons, a type of cosmic-ray particle, to generate images of the interior of such objects.
- Muon particles are created when cosmic rays, mostly protons and atomic nuclei, collide with atoms in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. These muons travel through the atmosphere and penetrate deep into the ground, passing through objects along their path.
- The principle behind CMR is to measure the flux of muons passing through an object and compare it to the expected flux based on the object’s geometry and composition.
- Differences in the measured and expected flux indicate variations in the object’s density or composition, which can be used to create an image of the object’s internal structure.
5) Myanmar Teak Trade: Teak wood from Myanmar’s deciduous and evergreen forests is highly valued for its durability, resistance to water and termites, and is commonly used for high-end furniture, veneers, and ship-decking. However, the forest cover and teak reserves in Myanmar are shrinking, which increases the wood’s value. Teak, is a large deciduous tree native to India, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand.
- Myanmar teak is listed in the IUCN Red List as endangered, but not listed in the CITES. African teak is classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List 2004, and is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
- India has become the second largest importer of “conflict wood” from Myanmar, after China. India hasn’t banned the import of teak from Myanmar.
- Following the military coup in Myanmar in February 2021, the military junta took over Myanma Timber Enterprises (MTE), with exclusive control over the country’s valuable timber and teak trade. The sales of this “conflict” wood are a crucial source of income for the military regime.