1) Large Hadron Collider: It is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It was constructed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in partnership with scientists and engineers from over 100 countries.
- The objective of the LHC was to help physicists test predictions of various theories of particle physics. This included measuring the properties of the Higgs Boson and also searching for the big family of new particles as predicted by supersymmetric theories.
- It is located underneath the earth’s surface at a depth of 175 metres below the border between France and Switzerland near Geneva
- Its first research took place in March 2010. It discovered the elusive Higgs boson in July 2012.
2) Higgs field: is the invisible energy field that exists throughout the universe. It consists of Higgs boson particles (God particles).
- When the particles scattered from Big-bang crosses the Higgs field, the former attains mass and slow down as their weight increases.
- If Higgs didn’t provide mass to particles, then all particles float in the universe with the speed of light and there will be no gravity and no life.
- More interaction of particles with Higgs fields gives heavier mass to the particles = they settle down at one place = creation of stars, planets etc.
- The process of giving mass to a particle is known as Higgs effect.
- Higgs-boson particles are named as God Particles as they are the fundamental particles that provide mass to other particles.
3) UK model of Astro Carta: The plan aims to establish a global commercial framework for insurability, licensing and regulation of commercial satellites.
- based on the Artemis Accord model for sustainable space exploration, the UK Space Sustainability Plan outlines four primary elements:
- reviewing the regulatory framework for UK orbital activity;
- working with organizations such as the G-7 and the United Nations to emphasize international engagement on space sustainability;
- To try and develop safety and quality-related metrics to measure the sustainability of activities; and,
- to induce additional funding of $6.1 million on active debris removal.
4) United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: The UNCOPUOS was established in 1958 as an ad hoc committee of the UN (later made permanent in 1959) with UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)as its secretariat.
- Its main task is to review and foster international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, as well as to consider legal issues arising from the exploration of outer space.
- The Committee currently has 95 members who meet annually in Vienna, Austria at the Vienna International Centre.
- It adopted a set of 21 voluntary, non-binding guidelines for long term sustainability of outer space activities.
5) Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project: It aims to harvest surplus water available during rainy season in rivers in Southern Rajasthan such as Chambal and its tributaries, including Kunnu, Parvati, Kalisindh, and use this water in south-eastern districts of the state, where there is scarcity of water for drinking and irrigation.
- ERCP is planned to meet drinking, industrial water and irrigation needs of the southern and south eastern Rajasthan, for humans and Livestock till the year 2051.
- The Chief Minister of Rajasthan has demanded the national project status for the Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project (ERCP).