1) Fixed-Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs: It includes two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) combined in a single dosage form, which is manufactured and distributed in fixed doses.
- They have been shown to appreciably reduce the risk of medication non-adherence, which is particularly important in patients with chronic diseases.
- If the drugs combination is not appropriate, then it can lead to some patients getting too much of an ingredient and others getting too little. FDCs “limit clinicians’ ability to customize dosing regimens.”
2) Adverse Possession: The 22nd Law Commission has said in its recent report that there is no justification for introducing any change in the law relating to adverse possession.
- It is a legal concept that allows a person who has unlawfully occupied someone else’s land for a certain period of time to claim legal ownership of that land.
- In India, adverse possession has been a part of the legal framework for a long time and is rooted in the idea that land must not be left vacant and instead be put to judicious use.
- The law on adverse possession is contained in the Limitation Act, 1963.
- Limitation Act, 1963 – Under the Act, any person in possession of private land for over 12 years or government land for over 30 years can become the owner of that property.
3) Shanan Power Project: Punjab and Himachal Pradesh are set for a face-off as the 99-year lease on the Shanan hydropower project situated on Uhl river in Himachal Pradesh.
- The first stage (48 MW) of the project was commissioned in 1932. It was given to Punjab on 99-year lease by the then ruler of Mandi, Raja Joginder Singh Bahadur, which would end on March 2, 2024.
- The Shanan project was allocated to the State of Punjab in accordance with the provisions of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.
- Himachal Pradesh now wants the project handed over to the State expiry of the lease period.
- The main attraction of the hydro project is the four-stage haulage trolley service. It was basically constructed for carrying construction material of Shanan powerhouse from Jogindernagar to Barot. It is a unique type of trolley based on pulley system with no engine, steering wheel or no gears or brakes.
4) World Environment Day: It is observed on the 5th of June every year since 1973 as part of the United Nations Environment Programme to build awareness to save life on planet Earth.
- The event has been led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) since its inception in 1973.
- The theme of this year’s World Environment Day will focus on solutions to plastic pollution under the campaign #BeatPlasticPollution.
- This year’s event is hosted by Côte d’Ivoire in partnership with the Netherlands.
5) Biochar: It is a carbon-rich material that is made from biomass through a thermochemical conversion process known as pyrolysis.
- Pyrolysis – In this process, organic materials, such as wood chips, leaf litter or dead plants, are burned in a container with very little oxygen.
- Biochar is black, highly porous, lightweight, fine-grained and has a large surface area.
- Approximately 70% of its composition is carbon.
- The remaining percentage consists of nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen among other elements.
- Biochar production is a carbon-negative process, which means that it actually reduces CO2 in the atmosphere.