1) Rehabilitation Scheme for Victims of Trafficking: The Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, has approved a scheme that aims to provide financial assistance to states and Union Territories to establish protection and rehabilitation homes for victims of trafficking, particularly in states with international borders.
- Human trafficking is a global issue that affects numerous countries, and India is no exception.
- According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data, 2,189 cases of human trafficking were filed in 2022, involving 6,533 victims.
- Various Forms of Human Trafficking:
- Forced Labour.
- Sexual Exploitation.
- Child Trafficking.
- Bonded Labour.
- Organ Trafficking.
- Article 23 prohibits human trafficking and beggar (forced labour without payment).
- Article 24 forbids employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines.
- Section 370 and 370A of IPC provide for comprehensive measures to counter the menace of human trafficking including trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
- The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) is the premier legislation for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
- United Nations Convention on Transnational Organised Crime (UNCTOC) has a Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children( India has ratified).
2) Anaemia and Maternal Health: Recently, a study published in The Lancet Journal, titled- Maternal anaemia and the risk of postpartum haemorrhage: a cohort analysis of data from the WOMAN-2 trials, has found that there is a strong link between Anaemia and Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH).
- Mean estimated blood losswas 301 mL for women with moderate anaemia and 340 mL for women with severe anaemia. Severe anaemia is associated with seven times higher odds of death or near miss compared to moderate anaemia.
- Worldwide, over half a billion women of reproductive age are anemic.
- Lower haemoglobin values are associated with increased blood loss and clinical PPH.
3) Governor’s Powers in Dismissing a Minister: The recent decision of dismissal and suspension of a Minister in Tamil Nadu by the Governor has sparked a Constitutional Controversy. The Governor reversed his decision later and suspended the dismissal order.
- Under Article 164 of the Constitution, the Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor without any advice from anyone. But he appoints the individual Ministers only on the advice of the Chief Minister.
- From Section 51(1) and 51(5) of the Government of India Act, 1935, which governed the colonial rule, the Governor had absolute discretion to choose and dismiss Ministers.
- Since independence, the power to choose or dismiss a Minister lies with the Chief Minister, who represents the will of the people.
- The inclusion of the “pleasure of the Governor” in Article 164 of the Constitution refers only to the formal act of issuing dismissal orders upon the advice of the Chief Minister.