1) Einstein Ring: An Einstein ring is a ring of light created when light from a galaxy, star or other light-emitting cosmic objects passes near a massive object before it reaches the Earth, or in this case, the Webb telescope. The Einstein ring is also known as the Chwolson ring.
- When this happens, gravitational lensing causes the light to get diverted and if the source, lens and the observing element are all in perfect alignment, this light appears as a ring.
- So, the ring itself not a real physical structure in space, but just a play of light and gravity, a result of the gravitational lensing effect.
2) Inouye Solar Telescope: The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is located at the Haleakala Observatory on the Hawaiian island of Maui.
- The DKIST was set up by the US National Science Foundation (NSF).
- According to the NSF, the Inouye Solar Telescope is the most powerful solar telescope in the world. Its insights will transform how we predict and prepare for events like solar storms.
3) UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities: The Indian cities, Nilambur and Thrissur in Kerala, have gained recognition from UNESCO after they became the nation’s first entrants in the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities along with Telangana’s second largest city, Warangal.
- In the year 2022, 77 cities from 44 countries of the world including India have been included in this list.
- Launched in 2013, the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities (GNLC) is an international policy based network. It aims to ensure the development of all learning cities by sharing ideas and arts with other cities
- The network supports the achievements of all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but primarily focused on SDG 4 (‘Ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all) and SDG 11 (making human habitats sustainable, inclusive, safe).
4) Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLG Scheme): It is a part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan package (announced in May 2020)
- It provides fully guaranteed and collateral-free additional credit to MSMEs, business enterprises, MUDRA borrowers and individual loans for business purposes to the extent of 20% of their credit outstanding as of 29th February 2020.
- In an indication of the continuing distress in the MSME sector, one in every six loans disbursed under the ECLG Scheme launched as part of the Covid-19 relief package in May 2020 has turned bad.
5) Foundational Learning Study (FLS) survey: FLS survey by the Ministry of Education and NCERT has revealed that 11% of Class 3rd students lack basic maths skills and about 37% lack basic skills in maths
- Foundational learning forms the basis of all future learning and includes two main pillars – foundational literacy and foundational numeracy which a child is expected to acquire by Grade 3.
- It takes a one-to-one interview with each child and then assesses their learning skills. It is different from the National Achievement Survey (wherein learning outcomes are tested for students of classes 3, 5,8 and 10 using MCQ)