Some major changes in Indian diplomacy towards Pakistan have been observed in the last few years
Bilateral relations between India and Pakistan:
- India has made a number of attempts to build normal neighbourly relations with Pakistan.
- The External Affairs Minister’s (EAM) also took the initiative to propose a Comprehensive Bilateral Dialogue in December 2015.
- India had accorded MFN status to Pakistan in 1996. A Pakistan cabinet decision of 2011 to reciprocate remains unimplemented
- The visit to religious shrines between India and Pakistan is governed by the Bilateral Protocol on Visits to Religious Shrines signed between India and Pakistan in EG: Kartarpur Corridor
Issues between both the countries
- India’s relations with Pakistan are the most complex of its ties with its neighbours.
- Terrorism emanating from territories under Pakistan’s control remains a core concern in bilateral relations.
- EG: Pulwama cross-border terror attack: In a heinous and despicable act of cross border terror attack on the convey of Indian security forces in Pulwama, Jammu & Kashmir in 2019.
- The relations between the two countries have remained strained for years now and took a turn for the worse in August 2019 when India revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir.
- In 2019, Pakistan announced unilateral measures, including downgrading of diplomatic relations, suspension of bilateral trade and review of bilateral agreements with India.
- Pakistan’s ambition and Demand: It aims to change the status quo in Jammu and Kashmir with a three-pronged strategy — violent destabilisation of Kashmir while raising human rights concerns in global forums, reopen the Kashmir question that India believed was settled after the 1971 war, and leverage global nuclear concerns to force Indian concessions on Kashmir.
- India’s transformed relations with the US and getting the West to discard its temptation to mediate on Kashmir enormously improved India’s diplomatic position.
- Following the cross border terrorist attack on an army camp in Uri in Jammu and Kashmir and continued incidents of terrorist infiltrations, the Indian Army conducted surgical strikes at various terrorist launch pads across the Line of Control.
- India and Pakistan have been engaged in “back channel” talks in order to break the stalemate in the relationship between the two nuclear-armed neighbours.
- By changing the constitutional status of Kashmir in 2019, India has reduced the scope of India’s future negotiations with Pakistan on Kashmir.
- In keeping with its “Neighbourhood First Policy”, India desires normal neighbourly relations with Pakistan.
- India has made clear that it will not compromise on issues relating to national security and will take firm and decisive steps to deal with all attempts to undermine India’s security and territorial integrity.
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