Long Period Average (LPA): The IMD predicts a “normal”, “below normal”, or “above normal” monsoon in relation to a benchmark “long period average” (LPA).
- The LPA of rainfall is the rainfall recorded over a particular region for a given interval (like month or season) average over a long period like 30 years, 50 years, etc.
- LPA refers to the average rainfall recorded from June to September for the entire country, the amount of rain that falls every year varies from region to region and from month to month.
- The IMD’s prediction of a normal monsoon is based on the LPA of the 1971-2020 period, during which India received 87 cm of rain for the entire country on average.
- It has in the past calculated the LPA at 88 cm for the 1961-2010 period, and at 89 cm for the period 1951-2000.
NATO: Earlier reluctant, Finland is now hurtling to join NATO.
- NATO is a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, 1949.
- It sought to create a counterweight to Soviet armies stationed in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II.
- Article 5 was a key part of the 1949 North Atlantic Treaty, or Washington Treaty, and was meant to offer a collective defence against a potential invasion of Western Europe.
New Iron age: Carbon dating of excavated finds in Tamil Nadu pushes evidence of iron being used in India back to 4,200 years ago
- Before this, the earliest evidence of iron use was from 1900-2000 BCE for the country, and from 1500 BCE for Tamil Nadu.
- The latest evidence dates the findings from Tamil Nadu to 2172 BCE! Much older.
- The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent was the one succeeding the Late Harappan Culture. The period is known because of the material of tools used in the time frame.
- The era coincides with the Vedic Age in the historical timeline.
- Painted Grey Ware and the Northern Black Polished Ware were the prominent cultures of the era.
Carbon dating: Carbon Dating definition biology can be given as one of the mainstream methods of archaeology for dating organic objects up to 50,000 years old.
- This process is based on the radiative decay of Carbon-14 isotopes over thousands of years. Scientists have discovered through Physics that radioactive molecules decay at a particular rate dependent on the mass and the atomic number of the decaying atoms.
- This discovered constant is used to determine the approximate age of the decaying material through the radioactive isotopes ratio to the estimated initial concentration of these isotopes during the organism’s death.
HS200: It is a 20-metre-long booster with a diameter of 3.2 metres and is the world’s second largest operational booster using solid propellants.
- The control system used in the HS200 booster employs one of the world’s most powerful electro-mechanical actuators with multiple redundancies and safety features.
- Designed and developed by: Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Thiruvananthapuram.
- The GSLV Mk-III rocket which will be used for the Gaganyaan mission will have two HS200 boosters which will supply the thrust for lift-off.