1) Alzheimer’s Disease: It is a neurological disorder which causes brain cells to degenerate and die. This leads to loss of memory, problems with words in speaking or writing, poor judgment, changes in mood and personality, confusion with time or place, etc.
- Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Dementia is a group of brain disorders that cause the loss of intellectual and social skills.
- Alzheimer’s is caused by the build-up of proteins known as tau tangles or plaques within the brain and is also known as the third type of diabetes.
- Tau is a protein that when it occurs in tangled formations in the brain of Alzheimer patients, disrupts the ability of neurons to communicate with one another in the brain.
- Alzheimer’s is an incurable disease, as the death of brain cells cannot be reversed.
2) VL-SRSAM: The Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile was successfully flight-tested by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) & Indian Navy.
- it is an indigenously developed ship-borne weapon system by DRDO.
- It has been designed to strike at the high-speed airborne targets at the range of 40 km to 50 km and at an altitude of around 15 km.
- It is an indigenous upgrade to the 2-decade-old Israeli Barak 1 surface-to-air missile system on board Indian warships.
3) Elvira Rat: or the large rock rat is a rodent found only in the Yercaud hills.
- It is a nocturnal and fossorial (burrowing) species.
- t is found only in the Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu.
- It is not found in any protected areas.
- Threats – The main threat to this species is a decline in habitat due to the expansion of human settlements, mining in the foothills, uncontrolled grazing in the rocky areas, etc.
- IUCN Red List Status: Critically Endangered
- Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule V (Vermin)
4) Giant Stingray: The world’s largest recorded freshwater fish, a giant stingray, has been caught in the Mekong River in Cambodia.
- It is found throughout the large rivers and estuaries of Borneo and Southeast Asia.
- While this species of giant stingray has an extremely dangerous venomous barb that can reach nearly 1 foot in length, they are not usually a threat to humans.
- More often, they wind up in the market as a source of cheap protein.
5) Mekong River: it is a trans-boundary river, flowing in East Asia and Southeast Asia.
- It is the longest river in Southeast Asia.
- Originating in the Tibetan Plateau, it runs across China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
- It drains into the South China Sea