1) Kutia Kondh tribe : The Kutia Kondhs are a particularly vulnerable tribal groups in Kalahandi district, Odisha. These tribals worship nature. The women of this tribe, called the ‘the people of the spirit world,’ ink themselves with beautiful geometric facial tattoos.
- The Kondhs who live in hill top and valleys are known as Kutia Kondha. Whereas those who live in high land and near the streams are called Dongria Kondha and those who are residing in plain area are known as Desia Kondh.
- Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn agriculture (also called dongar chaas or podu chaas) is the primary source of food for the tribal communities in the area.
2) Nuclear-powered icebreakers : Russia has unveiled two nuclear-powered icebreakers for the Western Arctic- Yakutia and Rossiya. Previous icebreakers are Arktika, Sibir, Chukokta
- According to Russia such icebreakers were of strategic importance for the country. b) They are needed for the study and development of the Arctic, and c) They will help in ensuring safe, sustainable navigation in the Arctic region.
3) Red Crowned Roofed Turtle (Batagur kachuga) : India’s proposal for induction of fresh water turtle Batagur kachuga in Appendix I earned wide support at CoP 19 of CITES in Panama.
- It is a freshwater turtle species, and found in deep flowing rivers with terrestrial nesting sites. It is native to India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Found in Ganga and Brahmaputra basin.
- Currently in India, the National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary is the only area with substantial population of the species.
- IUCN: Critically Endangered, WPA: Schedule I, CITES: Appendix I (earlier Appendix II)
- In comparison to their female counterparts, the males are shorter and reach only half their length.
4) Measles and Rubella : they are contagious viral disease that is spread by contact with an infected person through coughing and sneezing. Measles is caused by Rubeola virus and Rubella is caused by Rubella virus.
- Measles can cause serious complications, including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhoea, ear infection and pneumonia
- Measles and Rubella have similar symptoms. However, rubella is a milder viral infection than measles. Rubella infection in pregnant women may cause foetal death or congenital defects known as congenital rubella syndrome
- Both of them can be entirely prevent with a two-dose of MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine.
5) Ecosystem engineers : they are organisms that directly or indirectly modulate the availability of resources to other species, by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. Examples:
- African forest elephants (Critically Endangered) reduce above‐ground carbon through grazing and disturbance.
- Rhinoceros (Near Threatened) affect the carbon cycle through soil compaction and disturbance (bioturbation). In grassland ecosystems, these factors are likely key controls on fires.
- Pangolins’ (Critically Endangered) diet consists of social insects such as termites and ants, the populations of which they regulate. Notably, termites are vital decomposers, but that process also results in an estimated 1‐3% of natural global annual emissions
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