Carrying Capacity: In ecological terms, the carrying capacity of an ecosystem is the size of the population that can be supported indefinitely upon the available resources and services of that ecosystem. Disease, competition, predator-prey interaction, resource use and the number of populations in an ecosystem all affect carrying capacity. Carrying capacity of an ecosystem as an anchor for planning sustainable development of a region Living within the limits of an ecosystem depends on three factors:
- the amount of resources available in the ecosystem,
- the size of the population, and
- the amount of resources each individual is consuming.
Junk Grade: Junk bonds represent bonds issued by companies that are financially struggling and have a high risk of defaulting or not paying their interest payments or repaying the principal to investors. Junk bonds are bonds that carry a higher risk of default than most bonds issued by corporations and governments. Junk bonds are also called high-yield bonds since the higher yield is needed to help offset any risk of default. Moody’s and Fitch have downgraded Russia’s sovereign rating to ‘junk’ grade following severe sanctions by western countries.
Donate a pension scheme: Launched under Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan (PM-SYM) under Ministry of Labour for people to contribute to the pension fund of their support staff. Under this, citizens can donate the premium contribution of their immediate support staff such as domestic workers, drivers, helpers etc. PM-SMY is a 50:50 voluntary and contributory pension scheme in which the beneficiary makes a stipulated age-specific contribution and the Central Government matches it. Eligibility: Workers working in the unorganised sector (earning less than 15000/month) in the age group of 18-40 years can register themselves and deposit a minimum of Rs 660 to 2400 every year depending on their age. They should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO). Further, he/she should not be an income tax payer. Benefits: After attaining the age of 60 years they will receive the minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000 per month.
National Open Digital Ecosystem: National Open Digital Ecosystem (NODE) or GovTech 3.0 defined as “Open and secure delivery platforms, anchored by transparent governance mechanisms, which enable a technology collaboration among citizens, businesses and governments to transform societal outcomes. GovTech 3.0 is focused on Open Digital Ecosystems (ODEs), the underlying philosophy suggests that the government should focus on creating the “digital commons”. It envisages the government becoming a facilitator by creating digital infrastructure on which innovators can collaboratively build solutions for the public good. For Examples, deployment of contact tracing apps (AarogyaSetu) developed through public-private partnerships, to prevent the spread of the corona virus.
Central Administrative Tribunal: Article 323 – A: The Central Administrative Tribunal had been established under Article 323 – A of the Constitution for adjudication of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or other authorities under the control of the Government. Objective and Composition: The CAT is a specialist body consisting of Administrative Members and Judicial Members who by virtue of their specialized knowledge are better equipped to dispense speedy and effective justice. It was established in 1985. A Chairman who has been a sitting or retired Judge of a High Court heads the Central Administrative Tribunal.