Five Eye: The Five Eyes (FVEY) is an alliance of intelligence agencies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. It is the most well known of all espionage alliances in the world. The origins of the Five Eyes can be traced back to the end of World War II when the Allies set down post-war goals in the Atlantic Charter. Later when the Cold War began in earnest, a surveillance system code-named ECHELON was developed by the FVEY to intercept and monitor communications of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact members.
Heatwaves: In India, Heat wave is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches atleast 40 degree C or more for Plains and at least 30 degree C or more for Hilly regions. Heat Wave: Departure from normal is 4.5 degree C to 6.4 degree C. Severe Heat Wave: Departure from normal is >6.4 degree C.
Smart Event Tracking System: Smart Event Tracking System (SETS) is a Google Maps-based planning and analysis tool. It is in-house software of the Indian Railways. (SETS) is being used to tackle the problem of cattle getting run over by the trains. Kilometer stamps on electrical masts along the railway tracks are mapped and the exact location of ‘cattle run over’ is fed into the system. It will become easy to identify the location of the accidents and observe the patterns of such accidents. This system can also be used to observe the patterns of incidents of chain-pulling, absence of gatemen at level crossings, etc.
Stagflation: Stagflation refers to an economy that is experiencing a simultaneous increase in inflation and stagnation of economic output. Stagflation is characterized by slow economic growth and relatively high unemployment—or economic stagnation—which is at the same time accompanied by rising prices (i.e. inflation). Measures: There is no definitive cure for stagflation. The consensus among economists is that productivity has to be increased to the point where it would lead to higher growth without additional inflation.
- Policy support for a sustained and inclusive recovery may be needed for longer.
- The focus is likely to be on the normalisation of prudential policies and the strengthening of insolvency frameworks and restructuring mechanisms, including for the overhang of public and private debt
National Calamity Contingent Duty: National Calamity Contingent Duty (NCCD) is levied to fund the National Disaster Response Fund and additional budgetary support is given as and when necessary. The NCCD is levied for goods specified in the Seventh Schedule (goods manufactured or produced).
BBIN: Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal (BBIN): Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) had signed a framework MVA in June 2015 to enable movement of passenger and cargo vehicles across borders among the four countries. Bhutan has not yet ratified the pact for its entry to come into force. However, Bhutan had given its consent for the BBIN MVA to enter into force amongst the other 3 countries i.e. Bangladesh, India and Nepal, who have already ratified it.