Tissue culture plants: Plant tissue culture is defined as culturing plant seeds, organs, explants, tissues, cells, or protoplasts on a chemically defined synthetic nutrient media under sterile and controlled conditions of light, temperature, and humidity. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture:
- micropropagation using meristem and shoot culture to produce large numbers of identical individuals
- screening programmes of cells, rather than plants for advantageous characters
- crossing distantly related species by protoplast fusion and regeneration of the novel hybrid etc.
APEDA: The Government in 1986 had set up APEDA through an Act of Parliament under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. It is an apex-Export Trade Promotion Active body.
- The APEDA had been undertaking most of the activities as per its mandate and scope of work allocated spanning its 14 product categories which mainly includes the sector of fruits and vegetables, processed fruits and vegetables, animal, dairy and poultry products and cereals.
- It promotes exports of agricultural & processed food items (including GI products) by providing assistance to the exporters.
Maharana Pratap: Maharana Pratap hailed from the Sisodiya clan of Rajputs in Kumbhalgarh, Rajasthan. He was the 13th King of Mewar
- Battle of Haldighati was fought in the year 1576 between Maharana Pratap and Mughal forces led by Raja Man Singh of Amber (general of the Mughal emperor Akbar).
- Maharana Pratap bravely fought the war but eventually lost it.
W bosons: it is a fundamental particle.
- Together with the Z boson, it is responsible for the weak force, one of four fundamental forces that govern the behaviour of matter in our universe.
- The W boson, which is electrically charged, changes the very make up of particles.
- It switches protons into neutrons, and vice versa, through the weak force, triggering nuclear fusion and letting stars burn.
Pantanal wetland: The world’s largest wetland, known as the Pantanal, in South America is at risk of collapse.
- This is due to a series of local and seemingly minor decisions that fail to account for their cumulative impact on one of Earth’s most biodiverse ecosystems.
- It is also the world’s largest flooded grasslands.
- It is fed through the Paraguay River and tributaries.