Minorities: The Constitution recognizes Religious minorities in India and Linguistic minorities in India through Article 29 and Article 30.
- But Minority is not defined in the Constitution.
- Currently, the Linguistic minorities in India are identified on a state-wise basis thus determined by the state government whereas Religious minorities in India are determined by the Central Government.
- The Parliament has the legislative powers and the Centre has the executive competence to notify a community as a minority under Section 2(c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act of 1992.
Integrated Battle Groups:
- If some activity, like any kind of worship, has been going on for years in the structure, then it is taken over as a living monument.
- But where no activity has taken place, say an abandoned building, then it is declared a dead monument.
- The latter is difficult to restore because it is generally covered by a lot of overgrowths.
Martand Sun Temple: It is a Hindu temple located near the city of Anantnag in the Kashmir Valley.
- It dates back to the eighth century AD and was dedicated to Surya, the chief solar deity.
- The temple was destroyed by Sikandar Shah Miri in a bid to undertake mass conversion and execution of Hindus in the valley.
- According to Kalhana, the Temple was commissioned by Lalitaditya Muktapida in the eighth century AD.
- The temple is built on top of a plateau from where one can view whole of the Kashmir Valley.
- From the ruins the visible architecture seems to be blended with the Gandharan, Gupta and Chinese forms of architecture.
Ethanol: Recently, the level of ethanol blending in petrol in India has reached 9.99 per cent.
- It is an organic chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C2H6O.
- It is a volatile, flammable, colourless liquid with a characteristic wine-like odour and pungent taste.
- Ethanol can be produced from crops that have high starch content like sugarcane, maize, wheat, etc. In India, ethanol is mainly produced from sugarcane molasses by the fermentation process.
- Ethanol can be mixed with gasoline to form different blends.
- As the ethanol molecule contains oxygen, it allows the engine to better combust the fuel and results in fewer emissions
- Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered a renewable fuel.
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